key point:Who is up and who is down and out changes throughout the story. Here's our guess at where the major powers will be in ten years.
The focus of ground combat operationshas changed dramatically since the end of the Cold War. Relatively few operations today involve the defeat of a technologically and doctrinally similar force, leading to the capture or liberation of a territory. Preparation for these operations remains important, but ground combat units also have a variety of other priorities, some (including counterinsurgency and policing) dating back to the origins of modern military organization.
This was first published in 2017 and will be republished due to reader interest.
What will the balance of ground combat power look like in 2030, presumably after the wars on terror and the wars of Russian consolidation (more on this below) are shaken?
Predictions are difficult, especially about the future, but some relatively simple questions can illuminate our analysis. Three questions in particular motivate this study:
• Does the army have access to national resources, including an innovative technological base?
• Is the army sufficiently supported by political authorities without jeopardizing the organisation's independence?
• Does the army have access to experiential learning? Does it have the opportunity to learn and innovate under real conditions?
Faced with these questions, most ground combat troops of 2030 will be very similar to today's deadliest armed forces, with perhaps a few key changes.
The Indian Army stands ready to stand alongside the world's most elite ground combat forces. The army has engaged in combat operations across the intensity spectrum, fighting a Maoist insurgency at home, a Pakistani-backed insurgency in Kashmir and a host of other, smaller domestic operations. At the same time, the Indian Army remains well-prepared for high-intensity combat against Pakistan, having long accepted the need for realistic combat training. Taken together, these experiences have helped make the force an effective tool in New Delhi's foreign and domestic policies.
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While Indian Army equipment has lagged behind the competition in key respects,India now has access to almost the entire universe of military technology. Russia, Europe, Israel,and the United States sells all their wares to India, which complements a growing domestic military-industrial complex. Despite the need to compete with the air and naval services, the future Indian Army should have better access to advanced technology than in the past, making it an increasingly formidable force.
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Of all European countries, France is likely to retain the most capable and deadliest army in the future. France remains committed to the idea of playing an important role in world politics and clearly believes in the need for effective ground forces to fulfill that role. This should continue and perhaps even accelerate in the future as France assumes greater control of the European Union's military and security apparatus.
France's military-industrial complex remains robust, both domestic and export. The army has modern command and communications equipment and forms the backbone for most of the European Union's multilateral armed forces. It also enjoys access to excellent field equipment, including tanks and artillery. The French government's commitment to maintaining a strong domestic defense industry benefits the army.
The French Army has considerable experience in operations in the lower to mid-tiers of the combat spectrum. It has served in the Afghan and North African theaters of the wars on terror, deploying regular and elite troops to support locals and defeat enemy irregulars. The army also enjoys the support of the other two French services; The Marine Nationale has remarkable expeditionary capabilities, and the Air Force is increasingly focused on support operations, including battlefield assault, transport, and reconnaissance. The army's modular, professional nature makes it easy to deploy over a wide area.
The Russian Armyunderwent a staggering transformation at the end of the Cold War and lost much of its access to resources, political influence and labour. The military-industrial complex that had supported the Red Army collapsed in slow motion, leaving the force with outdated and poorly maintained equipment. Morale dropped and the army fought against irregulars in Chechnya and elsewhere.
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Not everything has changed, but some things have. Considered improvements in the Russian economymore investment in the troops. Reforms, particularly in the elite troops, helped Russia win the war in Chechnya. In 2008, the Russian army quickly defeated Georgia and in 2014 led Ukraine's conquest of Crimea. Collectively we could call these the Wars of Russian Reconsolidation, a conflict that may not yet be over. The Russian army continues to play the central role in Moscow's management of the near abroad, even if it has ceded some space to naval and air forces in recent years.
The Russian army will remain a deadly force in 2030, but it will still face serious problems. Access to technology could become a bigger problem in the future. The death throes of the Soviet military-industrial complex are finally over,Leaving a system of innovation and productionthat has fought on both sides of the coin. The workforce can also prove problematic, as the army seems stuck between the old conscription model (supported by a dwindling population) and the volunteer system that makes the elite troops so special. Still, Russia's neighbors will continue to fear the size and power of the Russian army (especially in so-called “hybrid” operations) a long time ago.
The US Army has represented the gold standardfor a ground combat force since at least 1991.The defeat of the Iraqi army in 1991, and its complete destruction in 2003, remain the most impressive ground combat achievements since the end of the Cold War. For the past fifteen years, the Army has continued field operations in Iraq and Afghanistan; Special operators have moved much farther away.
The US Army continues to have access to an impressive system of military innovation. It shares the pie with the Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps, but despite sluggish growth over the past decade, the pie remains very large. While some of the equipment used by the US Army dates back to the Cold War, almost all of the equipment has undergone a number of upgrades to bring it up to the standards of modern, networked warfare. The Army has the world's largest array of reconnaissance drones, combining forward observation with deadly, accurate fire.
In addition, the army has fifteen years of combat experience in the wars on terror; the longest period of consistent fighting since at least the Indian Wars. However, there are dangers to this experience, not the least of which is organizational exhaustion. This is of particular concern given the seemingly never-ending nature of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Nevertheless, the US Army should remain the strongest ground combat force in the world in 2030, and not by a small margin.
Since at least the early 1990s, the People's Liberation Army has undertaken a thorough reform of its ground forces. For decades, elements of the PLA acted as guarantors of certain political factions within the Chinese Communist Party. As the reforms took hold, the PLA became both a commercial and a military organization and took control of a variety of small businesses.
This situation began to reverse when the Chinese economy broke out in the 1990s and 2000s. With access to funding and an increasingly innovative technology sector, the PLA's ground element began to slim down and reform, becoming a modern military organization.
Like its American counterpart, the PLA ground force must share the financial pie with two insatiable partners. The era in which China focused on ground power at the expense of sea and air power has finally come to an end. In addition, the PLA can never fully break away from the factional struggles within the Chinese Communist Party (CCP); the two are too intertwined for anything approaching Western-style civil-military relations to grasp.
The reform included extensive equipment modernization projects, realistic training, and steps to professionalize the force. While the PLA does not have the same level of funding as the US Army, it has access to nearly unlimited manpower and controls greater resources than almost any other army in the world. The only thing the PLA lacks is real-world experience;It has not conducted live combat operations since the Sino-Vietnamese War, and has played no role in the great conflicts of this century. Still, there is no reason to believe that the existing trends in PLA modernization and reform will change over the next fifteen years.
What countries will be the most powerful by 2030? ›
- 1 92.5 China. $ 43.879 Tn 2030.
- 2 60.5 United States. $ 28.708 Tn 2030.
- 3 37.8 — India. $ 17.948 Tn 2030.
- 4 13.3 Japan. $ 6.337 Tn 2030.
- 5 12.5 Indonesia. $ 5.951 Tn 2030.
- 6 10.4 Russia. $ 4.973 Tn 2030.
- 7 6.8 South Korea. $ 3.282 Tn 2030.
- 8 +4 4.5 Pakistan. $ 2.159 Tn 2030.
China – The world's manufacturing hub, China is expected to be most powerful economy by 2050. A number of leading organizations such as United Nations, World Bank and European Union have also indicated towards China's rising influence in world order.Which country will be the world's largest economy by 2030? ›
But China still emerges as the largest economy in the world before 2030 and India is still clearly the third largest in the world by 2050.Which country will rule in 2030? ›
The United States will remain the world's third-most populous country in 2030. In fact, there's little change in the top 10 over the next 8 years. China and India swap places and Ethiopia leapfrogs Japan, Mexico and Russia to go from 12th in 2022 to 9th by 2030. India is set to overtake China by the end of the decade.Which countries will be the next superpowers? ›
By 2050, more countries are likely to be defined as superpowers, joining the United States and creating a multipolar world order. Extrapolating current economic, geopolitical, and demographic trends would suggest that China is likely to become a new superpower, although its economy is currently faltering.Will China overtake the US? ›
China's gross domestic product will surpass that of the U.S. in about 2035, the Goldman group led by Kevin Daly and Tadas Gedminas wrote, while India's GDP will narrowly surpass the U.S.' in about 2075.Is the US on the decline? ›
According to the Social Progress Index, the US is facing "small but steady declines" in health and other matters and along with Brazil and Hungary was one of few nations to slide backwards on the index between 2010 and 2020.Which country will replace US as world's largest economy? ›
China is forecast to overtake the US as the world's largest economy by around 2035, while India is expected to become the world's second largest by 2075. The two countries will be followed by the US in third place, according to a long-term outlook by Goldman Sachs.Which is the richest country in 2025? ›
Luxembourg: USD 143,203 per capita in 2025
We forecast Luxembourg to be the world's wealthiest economy in 2025 in nominal GDP terms (at market exchange rates).
India is expected to become a superpower by 2025 when its per capita income nears $5,000 from $1,000 right now, a panel of eminent speakers at the ET Leader2Leaderforum on the sidelines of the Nasscom India Leadership Summit 2011 which kicked off on Tuesday.
Which country will be No 1 in future? ›
With the future economic growth and technology developed likely by the United States, Canada will likely remain one of the best places to live in the future.Who will be the richest person in 2030? ›
It was in fact Jeff Bezos who was set to become the first trillionaire. However, he is now forecasted to reach US$1.06 trillion in 2030, six years behind Musk in sixth place. Gautam Adani and Zhang Yiming are anticipated to be the next to amass more than US$1 trillion after Musk, according to the study.Which will be the best country to live in 2050? ›
While economic pecking order by 2030 was expected to be the US followed by China, Japan and India, by 2100, the US was again likely to become the biggest economy followed by China and India. Japan, however, was forecasted to remain at fourth position in 2100 from 2050.Will China be a superpower by 2030? ›
China's GDP should grow 5.7% per year through 2025 and then 4.7% annually until 2030, British consultancy Centre for Economics and Business Research (CEBR) forecasts. Its forecast says that China, now the world's second-largest economy, would overtake the No. 1-ranked U.S. economy by 2030.How powerful is the United States? ›
The United States of America is a North American nation that is the world's most dominant economic and military power.Who will rule the world in 2050? ›
China is expected to hold on to the number one spot. In 2050, the Asian giant is forecast to have the largest economy on the planet. With an ageing population and an annual GDP growth rate averaging just 4.4%, however, China isn't projected to enjoy the exceptional economic growth it experienced during the 2000s.Is America a super power? ›
The United States is currently a world power, as it is a country that holds significant influence over a large part of the planet. In the case of the United States, its influence is so great that some people have called the country a superpower: a country with a dominant position over most other countries.Will China become richer than the US? ›
"China would overtake the United States to become the world's largest economy in nominal US dollar terms by about 2030," the report's authors conclude. "But it would never establish a meaningful lead ... and would remain far less prosperous and productive per person than America, even by mid-century."Who has the strongest economy? ›
With a GDP of 23.32 trillion dollars, the USA is by far the world's largest economy in this ranking for 2021. It is followed by China in second place with a GDP of 17.73 trillion dollars. Canada is also quite far ahead in the international comparison and occupies the ninth place in this ranking.
What country will overtake China? ›
The United Nations report shows that India is expected to overtake China in terms of overall population by April and will have almost 1.7 billion people by 2050 compared to China's expected 1.31 billion, Yahoo News reported.Will the US have a lost decade? ›
The U.S. economy is extremely unlikely to have a “lost decade.” There are several, very important differences between conditions and policies in Japan in the 1990s and the U.S. today and over the next few years. The bubble in U.S. house prices was smaller than Japan's.Will US economy decline? ›
There is old term—“growth recession”—that may describe what 2023 will feel like. The unemployment rate will rise slightly; job growth will moderate but won't turn negative; and GDP growth will be below 1% in three quarters.How many years is America today? ›
How old is America today? As of 2021, the United States of America is 245 years old.Why is China a threat to the US? ›
The counterintelligence and economic espionage efforts emanating from the government of China and the Chinese Communist Party are a grave threat to the economic well-being and democratic values of the United States.How much does the US owe China? ›
2021, China owns $1.095 trillion of the total $28 trillion U.S. national debt.Which countries have a better economy than the US? ›
- Switzerland. #1 in Economically stable. #1 in Best Countries Overall. ...
- Germany. #2 in Economically stable. ...
- Canada. #3 in Economically stable. ...
- Netherlands. #4 in Economically stable. ...
- United Kingdom. #5 in Economically stable. ...
- Australia. #6 in Economically stable. ...
- Japan. #7 in Economically stable. ...
- Sweden. #8 in Economically stable.
- Guyana. Population: 790,000. GDP per capita: US$9,374.8 (WB, 2021) ...
- Macao (Special Administrative Region) Population: 658,000. GDP per capita: US$45,421.6 (WB, 2021) ...
- Barbados. Population: 287,700. GDP per capita: US$17,033.9 (WB, 2021) ...
- St. Kitts and Nevis. ...
- St. Lucia.
India will be the world's third-largest economy in 2060, by which time China is predicted to be back at No. 2 and the U.S. in first place again. As China and India rise, the combined share of the U.S. and European economies will fall from over 50% in 2019 to 38% in 2060.What will the US economy look like in 2025? ›
The U.S. economy, as measured by Real Gross Domestic Product, which was -3.4% in 2020 before accelerating to 5.7% in 2021, will ease to 1.4% in 2022, according to the forecast. It will then contract by 0.2% in 2023 before slowly rising to 1% in 2024 and 1.8% in 2025.
Which countries will dominate the world in 2050? ›
As a result, six of the seven largest economies in the world are projected to be emerging economies in 2050 led by China (1st), India (2nd) and Indonesia (4th) The US could be down to third place in the global GDP rankings while the EU27's share of world GDP could fall below 10% by 2050.Who are the 5 superpowers in the world? ›
China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States are often referred to as great powers by academics due to "their political and economic dominance of the global arena". These five nations are the only states to have permanent seats with veto power on the UN Security Council.Which country will no longer exist? ›
|Former Country||Collapse Year|
|North Yemen and South Yemen||1990|
The top 10 richest families in 2022 by estimated wealth are: The Walton family with $224.5 billion. The Mars family with $160 billion. The Koch family with $128.8 billion.Who are trillionaires of the world? ›
Net worth refers to a person's total assets—including business interests, investments, and personal property—minus their debts. No one has yet claimed the title of trillionaire, although the speed at which the world's wealthiest individuals have grown their fortunes suggests that it could happen in just a few years.How long until there is a trillionaire? ›
Examining the net worths of these individuals from Jan. 2022, the website determined that the first trillionaire could hit the milestone as soon as 2024, though depending on the world economy, this could possibly get pushed back a few years beyond that.What country is #1 in quality of life? ›
1. Sweden. Sweden is the top country in 2022 best quality of life rankings. The country stands out in the ranking of quality of life for health systems and well-developed public education, security, economic stability, and politics.Which country is most likely to survive climate change? ›
Climate change is felt by people not nations. The Notre Dame Institute judges Switzerland to be the least climate vulnerable country and Niger to be the most vulnerable.Where is the best place to live outside the US? ›
The Winner: The Best Place To Live
The best destination to live as an expat in 2022? Mexico is the winner, with 91% of expats saying they are happy with their life South of the Border. Drilling down, Mexico ranks first for the ease of settling in and second for personal finances.
Of all the European countries, France will likely retain the most capable, lethal army in the future. France remains committed to the idea of playing a major role in world politics, and clearly believes in the necessity of effective ground forces to fulfill that role.
Which country has the brightest future? ›
- United Kingdom. GDP per capita, Purchasing Power Parity in 2021: $49,675.3. ...
- France. GDP per capita, Purchasing Power Parity in 2021: $50,728.7. ...
- Canada. GDP per capita, Purchasing Power Parity in 2021: $52,085.0. ...
- Finland. ...
- Australia. ...
- Germany. ...
- Austria. ...
Nevertheless, the US Army should remain the most powerful ground combat force in the world in 2030, and not by a small margin.Who will have the most powerful military in future? ›
- United State of America.
- South Korea.
- United Kingdom.
China's economy is slowing, with annualized GDP growth falling to 0.4% for April–June 2022, its second lowest level since 1992. Economic recovery is being hampered by the combined effects of COVID and a falling property market.Which country is so advanced? ›
Because which country is more advanced than another is subjective, we used the rankings of Global Finance's list for the Most Technologically Advanced Countries In The World 2022 with the only difference being we put the United States in the first spot since it leads the world in technology and it is the home to ...